The purpose of short-term investments in stocks and bonds is to invest temporary cash used in corporate business activities and is also used by companies to obtain capital gains.
The purpose of the long-term investments in stocks and bonds is to earn interest or dividends in the long run. Companies can also be used to control other companies through stock ownership.
Contents (Definition according PSAK No. 50 in 2007)
Securities (security) are securities, which debt instruments, commercial paper, shares, oblgasi, the evidence of debt, units of collective investment contracts, futures contracts on securities, and any derivatives of securities.
Debt Securities (debt security) is the effect of showing the relationship between creditor debt receivable by the entity issuing securities.
Equity Securities (Equity Security) is the effect of showing the rights of an equity ownership or right to acquire (eg, warrants, purchase option) or the right to sell (for example: option to sell) the property at a price that has been or will be established.
SECURITIES INVESTMENT ACCOUNTING
At the time of acquisition, the company must classify the debt securities and equity securities into one of the three following groups:
- Held to maturity (held to maturity), debt securities according to the intention and ability of the company will be owned until maturity.
- Traded (trading), debt securities purchased and held primarily for sale in the near future to mengahsilkan Capital Gains.
- Available for sale (available for sale), debt securities that are not classified as securities held to maturity or trading.
Classified Securities Group "Held to Maturity"
If the company has intention to have the debt securities to maturity, the investment in debt securities should be classified in the group "held to maturity" and are presented in the balance sheet at cost after amortization of premiums or discounts.
The Company may change from "has a certain debt securities to maturity" in selling or transferring debt securities. The sale or transfer of debt securities are not considered a change in purpose "held to maturity" if the change is caused by the following conditions:
- There is evidence of a significant reduction in corporate credit risk securities issuer.
- Change tax laws that eliminate or raise the final tax rates that apply to interest on debt securities (not including changes in tax laws that revise the tax on the interest rates in general).
- Merger occurs or the sale of large quantities (such as segment sales) that result in the need for the sale or transfer of securities in the group "held to maturity" to maintain the company's credit risk and interest rate risk position is that time.
- Changes in requirements or regulations that significantly change the definition of permitted investments or investments that the maximum level permitted in certain types of securities, so the company must release the securities in the held to maturity.
- There is a change of government regulations regarding minimum capital that resulted in a particular industry reduces the company's business activities or the scale of operations and sell securities in the held to maturity.
- Changes in government regulation that resulted in increasing the risk weighting on investment in debt securities in the calculation of certain ratios, for example in the calculation of solvency of insurance companies or the calculation of bank capital adequacy ratio.
Besides the changes described above, other events that are not recurring and extraordinary character that can not be anticipated, can cause a company to sell or transfer certain securities in the held to maturity, without having to question the original purpose of the group ownership of securities held to maturity considers effects in the same group.
Companies should not classify debt securities into the group "held to maturity" if the company has the intention to have an effect for an unspecified period. Hence the effects of debt should not be classified in this group if the company intended to sell these securities, for example, to deal with changes in market interest rates and changes associated with similar risks, and for liquidity needs.
In the management of assets and liabilities an entity, management may determine that the balance of the company's financial risk management can be achieved without the need to provide all the investment in the securities to be sold in times of need. In this regard, companies can determine that certain debt securities are classified in the group held to maturity and will not be sold to financial risk management objectives. Based on ownership objectives such debt securities, corporate debt securities can be admitted that the cost method (including amortization of discount or premium).
Classified Securities Group "Traded" and "Available for Sale"
Investments in debt securities that are not classified into the "held to maturity and equity securities at fair value are available, should be classified into one of the following groups and measured at fair value on the balance sheet:
- "Traded". Securities purchased and held for resale in the near future should be classified in the "trading". Securities in the "trading" usually indicates the frequency of purchases and sales are frequent. This effect has a goal to generate profit from short-term price differences.
- "Available for sale". Securities that are not classified in the "trading" and in the group "held to maturity", to be classified in groups "is available for sale".
Naturally Value Reporting Changes
Gains or unrealized losses on securities traded in the group must be recognized as income. Gains or unrealized losses on securities in the available for sale (including securities that are classified as current assets) should be included as a component of shareholders' equity are presented separately, and should not be recognized as income until such gains or losses may be realized.
For the third group effect, dividend and interest income, including amortization of premium and discount arising at acquisition, was always recognized as income. This statement does not affect the method used to recognize and measure the amount of dividend and interest income. Gains or losses that have been realized for the effects of which are classified in the group is available for sale or held to maturity are also still to be reported as income.
Change Investment Group
Transfer of intergroup effects recorded at fair value. At the date of the change, profits or unrealized losses must be recorded as follows:
to effect transfer of the trading, profits or unrealized losses on the transfer has been recorded as income and therefore should not be
- To the effect that transferred to the trading, profits or unrealized losses on the transfer date is recognized as revenue at that time.
- For debt securities is transferred to the available for sale from the held to maturity, profits or unrealized losses recognized in equity as a separate group on the transfer.
- For debt securities that are transferred to the available for sale from the held to maturity, profits or unrealized losses on the transfer date should be fixed are reported in the equity component separately, but must be amortized over the useful effect in a manner consistent with the amortization of premiums or discount. Amortization of gains or unrealized losses will be commensurate with the effects of amortization of premium or discount on interest income from securities in the held to maturity.
Decline Securities Value
For the individual effects in the group is available for sale or held to maturity, companies must determine whether the decrease in fair value below acquisition cost (including amortization of premiums and discount) is a permanent reduction or not. If it is possible investors could not get back the entire amount of cost that should be received in connection with the terms of the settlement of debt securities, the decline is considered permanent has happened.
If the decline in fair value judged as a permanent decline, the cost of their individual effects have to be reduced to fair value, and the amount of depreciation should be recognized in the income statement as a loss that have been realized. The new acquisition cost should not be changed back. The increase in fair value subsequent effect in the group available for sale must be included in a separate component of equity. Further decline of the fair value, if not a temporary decline in value, should also be included in the equity component separately.
Companies with a balance of assets classified into current assets, fixed assets and other assets are grouped manjadi duty short-term liabilities and long term (classified balance sheet) must report all traded securities as current assets. Securities in the held to maturity and securities in the available for sale are presented as current assets or non-current assets based on management decisions. Especially for debt securities in the held to maturity and the group is available for sale due next year should be classified as current assets.
In a cash flow statement, cash flow used for or derived from the purchase, sale, and maturity effects in the group is available for sale and held to maturity, to be classified as investing activities cash flow, and reported gross value for each group of securities in the cash flow statements. Cash flow to or from the purchase, sale, and maturity securities traded in the group should be classified as operating cash flow activity.
To effect the group is available for sale and the group held to maturity, the following information must be disclosed in the notes to the financial statements for each main group effect:
1. aggregate fair value,
2. Unrealized profits from the ownership effects,
3. Unrealized losses from the ownership effects,
4. acquisition costs, including the amount of premiums and unamortized discount.
For debt securities in the available for sale and the group held to maturity, information on maturity dates of debt securities must be disclosed in the notes to the financial report presented last year. Information on the due date can be grouped according to the time period from the date of the balance sheet. Financial institutions must disclose the fair value and acquisition cost of debt securities, including discount and unamortized premium on the basis, at least, 4 groups of maturity dates below:
1. maturities of less than 1 year,
2. maturities of between 1 to 5 years,
3. maturities of between 5 to 10 years,
4. maturities of more than 10 years.
Securities that are not due on a certain date, such as the effect guaranteed mortgage payment, can be expressed separately (not allocated to the several groups such maturity). If the maturity classification is allocated, its allocation basis must be disclosed. For each accounting period, the company must disclose:
- Revenue from the sale of securities in the available for sale, profits and losses realized from the sale.
- Basis for determining the acquisition cost in calculating the gain or loss is realized (for example, specific identification, average, or other methods).
- Profit and loss is included as income from the transfer of the grouping effect of the group is available for sale to the trade group.
- Changes in profit or loss Unrealized ownership for securities in the available for sale that have been incorporated into a separate component of shareholders' equity during the period.
- Changes in the ownership of profits or losses unrealized effects of traded securities for the purpose of which has been recognized as income in the reporting period.
For every sale or transfer of securities in the held to maturity must be disclosed:
- Number of accumulated amortization of discount or premium for the securities sold or transferred to other groups,
- Profit or loss selling effects, whether they are realized or unrealized, and
- Conditions that lead to the decision taken to sell or transfer such securities group.
Various kinds of bonds:
- If the terms of maturity: ordinary bonds and bond beam.
- Common bond is a bond which matures at the same time.
- Serial bonds are bonds that successive maturity in certain periods.
- If the terms of the guarantee: guaranteed bonds and bonds are not guaranteed.
- Guaranteed bonds are bonds that give investors a guarantee on the company can not pay its debts, investors can claim the guarantee.
- Unsecured bonds are bonds that do not provide a guarantee to investors the company can not pay its debts, investors can claim the guarantee.
- Bonds are guaranteed by other parties (warranty bond)
- Bonds that can be exchanged for shares.
- If the terms of its form: bonds and bonds on behalf of coupons.
Bonds on behalf of the interest may be taken only by those who are enrolled so that if the sale must be reported to the company that issued the bonds. Coupon bonds are bonds that is free, not the name. Each sheet is accompanied by bond coupons of interest payment date. Coupons were used to take flowers.
The purchase price of bonds is not always for its face value. The amount is determined by the price of the bond interest rate. The greater the interest, bond prices higher and conversely the smaller the interest bonds, the lower the price. If the percentage exceeds the bond's interest rate on the market, bond prices will be above the nominal value (with agio), but if the bond's interest rate lower than market interest rates below the nominal value of the price (with disagio).
To determine the amount of bond prices can be done by calculating the cash value of the amount due plus the cash value of the interest will be accepted.
If the bonds purchased between interest payment dates, the buyer pays the purchase price plus the interest rates run from the last interest payment date until the date of purchase of bonds. Interest payments this way is the acquisition price of bonds.
If bonds are owned exchanged with other securities, the investment account in the bond account is closed and opened a new investment. Marketable securities received for the price recorded on the stock, the difference with a book value of bonds is recorded as profit or loss.
Investments in shares are classified as long term investments which are usually done with the following objectives:
- To supervise other companies.
- To obtain a fixed income each period.
- To establish a special fund.
- To ensure continuity of supply of raw materials.
- To maintain inter-company relations.
The method of recording capital stock under PSAK No. 15:
- Method Cost of (Cost Method)
Investments in shares in other companies that amount is less than 20% and can not affect the company whose shares are owned recorded by the method of the base price. In this method of investment in shares will be included in the balance sheet for the price anyway. Changes in market prices are not recorded and the loss or profit is recognized only when the shares are sold.
FASB Statement No. 12 states if the investments made in stocks that meet the requirements to be called ssecurities marketable, then the company can use the method of the base price or market price lower, as in the case of short-term investments.
- Method Ownership (Equity Method)
By using this method, investments are recorded for the price anyway. Each end of each accounting period, the base price is changed in accordance with the profit or loss derived owned companies. Dividends received from shares is recorded to reduce the investment balance in stock. Part profits or losses by investors is recorded as profit or loss for the year concerned.
- The consolidated financial statements
This method should be used if the investor has other shares more than 50% of the amount outstanding. In this case the parent company financial statements (parent company) should be consolidated with the report of subsidiaries (subsidiary company).
PURCHASE OF SHARES
Basic price is the sum of all money paid in the purchase (exchange rates, commission fees, stamp duty, etc.). Amount will be recorded by debiting the stock investment accounts.
If the purchase of shares lumpsum done (with) the purchase price allocation is based as follows:
- If the market price of each share purchased is known, the allocation is based on the relative proportion of each stock.
- If a known market price of just one type of stock, the stock market price is known, is treated as the cost of these shares and the rest is the cost of other types of shares.
- If the market price of each share purchased was not known, then the basic price allocation deferred until one can know the price of the stock market.
Dividends received by shareholders in the amount depending on the number of shares owned. Dividends received in the form of shares of stock shares the company is called stock dividends.
SECURITIES BOND CRITICAL POINT
- Financial statement presentation. Bonds as collateral or mortgaged to the disclosure.
- Interest income earned from investments in bonds. Interest income to be received in the period to come, and yet they are entitled may be recognized as interest income in the period.
- Decline in value. Each must be evaluated at each reporting date to determine whether the investment has decreased the value (impairment) who are not temporer.Jika reduction was not considered temporary, the cost basis of any securities kedasar lowered until the new fees. The rate of decline was calculated as the unrealized losses and therefore included in net income. To test the securities decline in value of bonds is shown to determine whether "a big possibility that investors will not be able to collect all amounts due according to contractual requirements". For securities shares, factors to consider is how long and to what extent fair value under the cost condition, financial condition and short-term prospects and intentions emitennya and investors the company's ability to maintain their investments in order to enable it to perform recovery in fair value that had been anticipated. Decline in value of the test used for stocks and bonds based on the fair value test.
- Transfer between categories. Transfer between categories accounted for at fair value. If the securities are available for sale investments transferred to held to maturity, then this nautical investment (which has reached maturity) recorded on the date of the transfer are recorded at fair value of the new category. If the investment is held until maturity investments transferred into the available for sale, then the new investment (which is available for sale) are recorded at fair value.
- Controversy fair value. The main issues that arise include: (a) Measurements based on intentions, securities bonds can be classified as securities held to maturity, available for sale, or trade. As a result, the three bonds are identical securities can be reported in three different ways in the financial statements. In addition, the category has reached maturity only based on mere intention, which is a subjective evaluation. (b) Trading profit, a particular bond can be classified as bonds held until maturity and therefore reported at amortized cost, while the bond can be classified as securities available for sale and reported at fair value with gains or losses are reported as unrealized profits komprehensif lainnya. (c) The obligation is not considered to be reasonable, if an investment securities should be reported at fair value, then the obligation should be.
CRITICAL POINT SECURITIES SHARES
- Ownership, existing securities in the companies really belong to the company.
- Assessment, the stock is properly valued in accordance with existing conditions.
- Recording / Dividend Income recognition, dividend income will be received in future periods may have been recognized as dividend income in the period the company.
- Events / unusual transactions, the effects of financial crises that occurred in a country that could affect the company's situation.
- Accounting changes, accounting changes that are not necessarily followed in the recording made by a company that may cause the over-or understated.