Data processing system storing data electronically in a way to organize data units into smaller units greater in a structured and hierarchical. In detail, the data from the data hierarchy smallest to the largest data can be shown as follows:
- Field, which is the smallest collection of data elements stored in a space (space) physical.
- Record, is a number of fields that are grouped to form a data unit, which also describes the special attributes of an entity.
- File, is a set of similar records. An example is the entire record customer receivables are collected in one place called accounts receivable files
- Data base, is a collection of files that make up a large data units. With the data collected into a database company, the coordination of data becomes easier so that the renewal process (updating) and data access becomes lbih smoothly.
In the past, the company will make the program a new file every time a change kebutuhn information. As a result the number of master files held also increases. Today, by adopting the concept of a database, then the change will serve the information needs without the need to add new programs and files. General terms in the database concept to know is:
- Approach database (database approach). This approach looked at the data as an organizational resource that must be used and managed for the entire organization is not only used and managed by units or specific functions. In general, differences in data management with the old way (file approach) and new ways (database approach).
- Database management systems (database management system / DBMS), is a program that manages and controls the data and interface (between the data and application programs).
- Database system (database system), which is a combination of database, DBMS, and application programs that access the database through the DBMS.
- Administartor Database (DBA), is the person responsible for handling and managing databases.
- Data warehouse, is a database owned by a company,. Datawarehouse is built by utilizing advanced technology.
In a file-oriented system (file-oriented system), the programmer must know the physical location and layout of records used in an application program.
Database approach to know two ways of looking at the data is a logical perspective view) and the physical perspective (physical view).
Logical view (logical view) associated with the concept of how users organize, view, and understand the relationships between data. Physical view (physical view) relating to how and where the physical data created and stored on floppy disks, hard disk, tape, or other media.
Software database management system serves to connect between the way data is physically stored on disks and logical way of looking at the data by each user. DBMS control database so that users can access, generate information, or update the data without having to know how data is physically stored.
Thus, the user only defines responsible pesyaratan tanpilan their logical data without the need to change the physical view. In addition, the database administrator can also change the physical storage of data even if the user does not change the relevant application program.
Employee processing the data using a physical point of view to efficient use of storage devices and data processing equipment other. In this case the database administrator is responsible for physically storing data such that the logical requirements are met.
The use of a database system for managing an organization's data provides several advantages, among others:
- Integration of data, information can be generated by combining the data without limit.
- Reporting flexibility, the report can be revised easily, and made in accordance with the needs without being bound to schedule regular reports.
- Minimize repetition and inconsistency of data, because the data elements are stored only once, repetition and inconsistency of data can be minimized.
- Independence of the data, because data and programs independent of each other, then each nasing be changed without affecting each other. This simplifies data management and programming.
- Centralized data management, data base approach, the data manejemen become more efficient because the database administrator is responsible for mengkoordinasu, controlling, and managing databases.
- Security, DBMS software have inherent supervisory system, such as passwords that helps ensure data integrity.
- Cross-functional analysis, the database relationships between data elements.