Friday, November 20, 2009


This artikel discusses Organizational Behavior (Perilaku Organisasi) and its impact on Goal Congruence.

  • SPM has a main goal to ensure (as far as possible) the level of high goal congruence.
  • Goal congruence is an harmony between the actions of individuals to achieve personal goals to help the achievement of organizational goals.
  • In an organization, human behavior must be influenced by the formal system (which was formed by the organization) and informal (work ethic, management style and culture).

Factors that influence informal goal congruence consists of external factors and internal.

  • External factors, namely the norms of behavior expected to occur in the community (and the organization is part of the community).
  • External factors affecting goal congruence is the work ethic and appropriate industry-specific norms.
  • Working ethos is one of the organization's loyalty, and perseverance, spirit and pride that have in carrying out their duties.
  • The internal factors that affect goal congruence is the culture, management style, informal relationships within the organization and perception and communication.
  • Culture includes beliefs in the organization together, the values embraced life, behavioral norms and assumptions that implicitly and explicitly accepted applied at all levels of the organization.
  • Culture is strongly influenced by the personality and policy managers.
  • Style of management has the strongest impact on management control, because the attitude is a reflection of his subordinates superiors.
  • Informal relations are also needed, although the formal relationship has been established.
  • The means to achieve organizational goals must also be well communicated and the messages conveyed are expected to be interpreted with the same meaning.


  • Formal Factors affecting goal congruence reply consists of SPM and the rules.
  • The rules are a set of writings that includes all types of instructions and control (including instructions about positions, the division of labor, standard operating procedures, guidelines and ethical guidance guidance).
  • The rules may contain things that are simple to complex, strict guidelines to work flexible and positive action (prohibition of negative actions).
  • The types of rules can be:

  1. Physical control of all assets of the organization.
  2. Manual that is reviewed periodically.
  3. Security of information systems.
  4. Control system tasks.

  • The process begins with the formal control of strategic planning (according to organizational goals and strategies), preparation of budgets, implementation plans (actual performance, in accordance with the rules of the organization), reporting results and performance evaluation performance results.
  • Strategy is also influenced by organizational structure, so that the SPM is also so.
  • Organizations can have multiple structures, namely:
  • The structure of functional (every manager is responsible for functional areas within the organization).
  • Advantage is efficiency, weaknesses related to the effectiveness of uncertainty, the need for a gradual resolution of problems and less appropriate for the products and diverse market.
  • The structure of business units (each manager responsible for the activities of each business unit as part of a semi-independent from the organization).
  • The good news is the more visible management style and product market approach, its weakness is dulikasi number of jobs and functional areas of dispute between business units.
  • The structure of the matrix (each funsional units have dual responsibilities).


  • Controller is the person responsible for designing and operating the SPM.
  • Controller submitted to the Chief Financial Officer (Finance Manager).
  • Controller controller can be divided into corporate and business unit controller.
  • The function controllers:

  1. Designing and operating information and control systems.
  2. Preparing financial statements and financial reports (including taxes) to shareholders and external parties other.
  3. Preparing, analyzing and reporting performance meninterpretasikan; analyze the program and budget proposals, as well as in mengkonsolidasikannya annual budget.
  4. Supervises internal audit and operational audit, record control procedures that guarantee the validity of the information and determine an adequate level of security against fraud.
  5. Develop personnel in organizations involved in the control and training related to the control function

Friday, November 13, 2009


This artikel discusses about Strategic Planning (Perencanaan Strategis). Strategy consists of corporate strategy and business unit strategy.
  • Defined strategy based on goals set by upper management (profitability, maximize shareholder value, to assess risk and many stakeholder approach).
  • Companies develop strategies to match the core competencies with industry opportunities.
  • Kenneth R. Andrews proposed the basic concept of strategy development with a SWOT analysis (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity & Threat). Advantages and weaknesses are evaluated based on internal conditions, in order to anticipate opportunities and threats existing in the environment.

  • Corporate strategy is a strategy related to the right place (should be) to compete and how to compete in a particular industry.
  • Produce corporate strategy decisions on business to be added or maintained or stressed or reduced attention or didivestasi.
  • In corporate strategy, companies are classified into three categories (based on the level of connectedness and its level of diversification), ie companies with a single industry, companies associated with the diversification and companies with unrelated diversification.
  • Companies with a single industry using its core competencies and compete only in one industry. Therefore this type of company has a high level of relevance.
  • Firms with related diversification requires synergy among business units in terms of the ability to share common resources and general competence.
  • Companies with unrelated diversification synergies associated with each operating business unit. Often referred to as a conglomerate and has a high level of diversification.
  • Core competence is the ability that is used by companies to achieve higher performance and add significant business value.

  • Business unit requires the right strategy, especially if the higher level of diversification.
  • Business unit's strategy can be developed with some models (BCG, industry analysis and competitive advantage generic).
  • Model Boston Consulting Group (BCG) offers 4 mission device that is build, hold, harvest and divest. BCG will be increasingly monitored by the learning curve.
  • Analysis carried out with due regard to industry competitors in the industry, customers, suppliers, substitutes and new entrants. The stronger the fifth element, then the profitability is likely to lower and vice versa.
  • Generic competitive advantage to offer low-cost strategy (low cost) or differentiation (differentiation) or cost-cum differentation. This model was developed by Porter, supported the value chain analysis.

  • Strategic Plan is a formal plan that includes specific ways to implement strategies to achieve corporate objectives.
  • Strategic planning is the process of deciding which programs will be implemented by the company and the approximate amount of resources will be allocated to each program during the next few years. Or a brief strategic planning is the process of deciding the strategic plan.
  • Strategic planning consists of pemrogaman (program setting process) and budgeting (budget preparation process to support the program).
  • Strategic planning is the responsibility of upper management and middle managers of a corporate and business unit.
  • The manager will be assisted by several staff wrote it ensures that a predetermined plan to be implemented.
  • Therefore, top management style will also influence the shape and implementation of strategic planning.

Useful for strategic planning:
  • Framework for budget development.
  • Management development tool in the implementation of the strategy with the right process.
  • Mechanism that forces management to think the problems longer term.
  • Tools to align managers with corporate strategy because they have to disclose to the individual manager.

Limitations of strategic planning:
  • Strategic planning is only a form filling activities.
  • Strategic planning is a bureaucratic exercise.
  • Strategic planning it be done without strategic thinking.

The process of formal strategic planning is not necessary in smaller organizations and relatively stable or organization can not make a reliable estimate of the future or the organization that is managed by a different approach.

Friday, November 6, 2009


This Artikel examine about Manajemen Rantai Pasokan.
Supply chain includes all parts including suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customers, either directly or indirectly, in fulfilling customer demand. Supply chain includes not only the manufacturers and suppliers but also transporters, warehouses, retailers, and even the customers themselves.

In each organization such as manufacturing, supply chain includes all functions involved in receiving and filling customer demand. These functions include, but are not limited to, new product development, marketing, operations, distribution, finance, and customer service.

Supply chain is dynamic and involves a constant flow of information, products, and financial inter-level of different levels. In fact, the main purpose of the supply chain is meeting customer needs and in the process, turn a profit for himself.

Raises the supply chain picture of the movement of products or supplies from suppliers to manufacturers of products, distributors, retailers, customers throughout the chain.
Supply chain usually involves a variation of levels. These levels include:

  1. Customer
  2. Retailer
  3. Distributor
  4. Manufacturer
  5. Component or raw material suppliers.

Images of the levels of the supply chain:

Each level of the supply chain is connected through the flow of products, information, and finance. This flow usually occurs directly and may be regulated by one or intermediary level. Each level does not want shown in the supply chain. Design the right supply chain depending on customer needs and the roles undertaken by each level involved.

The purpose of each supply chain should be to maximize overall value. The value of the supply chain is different between what the end result is valuable for the customer and supply chain costs which occur in filling customer demand.
Design, planning, and operations kaputusan important role in the success or failure of a company.

The stages in the supply chain decision making:

  • Strategy or supply chain design.

During this phase provides marketing plans and pricing for the product, the company decided how to structure the supply chain in the next few years.

  • Planning the supply chain.

Decisions made during this stage of the time frame being considered is a quarter of the year. Composition of the supply chain of strategic phase is determined that it is confirmed. This arrangement determines the existing barriers. The success of planning to maximize supply chain surplus that can be generated by providing planning obstacles that arise during the design phase or strategic.

  • Supply chain operations

Time used here is a weekly or daily, and during this phase the company make decisions based on individual customer orders.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009


This artikel discuss about STRUKTUR HUTANG.
Debt structure describes a composition term debt used by companies, both short, medium, or long term, and is influenced by the size of these debts

Various kinds of debt, among others:

1. Short-Term Debt
2. Medium-Term Debt
3. Long-Term Debt

Short-Term Debt (Utang Jangka Pendek)

Source of funding short-term debt are grouped into:

  1. Passive decision variable, the amount of the funding sources will depend on other aspects of the decision in accordance with the company's activities. For example: purchase of raw materials on credit, accruals accounts.
  2. On The decision variable, companies must actively seek and obtain funding sources and in the codes should have formal agreements to creditors. For example: bank debt.

Medium-Term Debt (Utang Jangka Menengah)

In this type of debt repayment is usually paid when the asset is financed with debt are no longer needed. However, payments are also done regularly.
The benefits of this debt is that debt can be adjusted with available cash flow to pay off these debts.

Long-Term Debt (Utang Jangka Panjang)

In general, long-term debt has approximately more than 5 years, and some even believe that this debt has a 10-year period.
Long-term debt had ties with the capital structure. If the company borrows the funds and return it within a relatively long time then the loan / debt will become part of the company's capital structure.

Comparison between long-term debt that is borrowed and own capital is usually defined as the capital.
Long-term debt is also formed by the extension of loans / short term debt and medium term debt, it is seen on the basis of these debt payments.
The types of long-term debt include:

  1. Bonds
  2. Mortgages
  3. Investment Credit

Considerations In Debt Decisions

The longer the loan / debt is more secure because of the smaller firms bear the risk of bankruptcy, but the cost of greater interest.
The greater the likelihood of extending the loan period, the greater the cost of the extension to be issued and is likely to bear the risk of bankruptcy.

Funding Period Structure
Hedging Approach
Financing strategy of each asset with a term roughly equivalent to the rotation period of these assets into cash. This approach is based on the matching principle which states that the source of funds should be adjusted to how long the funds needed.

Funding comes from corporate loans / debt both in the short term, medium, and in the long term. It also depends on the size of the company's activities. Consideration is taken to make the debt is not only based on company needs, but also must be grounded also the risk of loss or bankruptcy which will be experienced after the debt.

ARTIKEL Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (MSDM)

This artikel discuss about Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (MSDM).
In doing SDM for SDM, there are three separate things that are still connected in the work that needs to be understood as follows:

  1. Strategic SDM
  2. SDM strategy, and
  3. SDM Organization.

Strategic SDM is a process of SDM practices on the relationship of business strategy. Line managers and human resource functions of strategic SDM. Strategic SDM to create a process to move from business strategy to organizational capacity in human resources practices.
Strategy SDM talked about building an agenda on human resource functions. SDM strategy to create a destination and a focus on human resource functions.
SDM organizations are menegenal process and develop an HR function to deliver SDM services. SDMorganizations is the implementation of human resources executives conducted by the SDM Professional.


Corporate managers to use the main strategies in the conduct of strategic human resources, business strategy formulation in running SDM results. Formulation of strategy presents three objectives. Namely:

  1. discuss a strategy guide for the future of the business or in other words a vision, purpose, goal, mission or future review.
  2. formulation of the problem to allocate resources. Companies have the resources, which focuses on a variety of purposes. Since few companies have sufficient resources to work on the stakeholders, where the allocation of resources should be made.
  3. formulating strategies that promise memrefleksikan explain commitments made in the formulation of the strategy discussion.

Strategy formulation process, the executive develop a future vision, allocate resources to realize the vision, and promised to stakeholders to achieve its objectives.

Repeating the formulation without the probability of implementing one of the main goals of the strategic SDM tasks. Strategic SDM is often associated with the business strategy on human resources actions by describing the ability to criticize it takes on a company to be successful.


When human resources strategy to ensure that a company has the resources necessary to complete the company's business objectives, the strategy describes the creation of human resources by the value of human resources functions.

Step 1: describe an organizational architecture

  1. Shared Mindset: the level for the human resource function has a mindset shared or common identity
  2. Competence: the level for the human resource function organized by individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and ability to carry out the work now and the future.
  3. Consequence: which level of management to achieve system used by human resources professionals to focus on results and behavior.
  4. Governance: which level of human resource functions effectively connected, communication, decision making, and policy.
  5. Work Process / Capacity for change: the level to which the function of human resources in training and adjustment, and understanding and improving processes.
  6. Leadership: the level for effective leadership that spreads into other parts of the human resource function.

Step 2: create an assessment process
A diagnosis of human resources audit or assessment suggests to identify the human resource organization.

Step 3: to provide human resource organization
Human resource functions apply to itself the model of human resource practices. When this happens, this practice became the building blocks of human resources related to the organization.

Step 4: priorities are set
Step 4 determines the priority of the organizational diagnosis of attention from human resources on a few critical issues. The function may set priorities for developing human resources practices. The practice is to build the infrastructure of the human resource function effectively and implementastion strategic human resources.
READ MORE - ARTIKEL Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (MSDM)

Saturday, October 24, 2009


This artikel discuss about SISTEM PENGENDALIAN MANAJEMEN (SPM)
The elements of management control systems, including:
  • Strategic Planning
  • Making a budget
  • Allocation of resources
  • Measurement, evaluation, and appreciation for the performance
  • Allocation of responsibility centers
  • Transfer Pricing


An organization must be controlled is to have the devices to ensure that the organization's strategic objectives can be achieved.
  1. Detector, information about what is happening
  2. Assessor, comparison with a standard
  3. Effector, behavior changes, if necessary

Elements of Control Systems
Each system has pengedalian least four elements:
  • Tracking (detector) or sensor
  • Assessor (assessor)
  • Effector
  • Network communication

Management control process is a process in which managers at all levels to ensure that the people they supervise are intended to implement the strategy.

A system is a certain way and are repetitive to implement an activity or group.
If the entire system to ensure appropriate action to all situations, the human managers may not be needed anymore.

The Limits of Management Control
The planning process in the formulation of strategy is more important, process control is more important in controlling the task, and in control of planning and control management is equally important.

Management Control
Management control is the process by which managers influence other members of the organization to implement organizational strategy.
Some aspects of this process, described as follows:
  1. Management control activities
  2. Alignment of
  3. Device implementation strategies
  4. Financial and nonfinancial pressure
  5. Assistance in developing new strategies

Strategy Formulation
Strategy formulation is a process to decide the organization's goals and strategies to achieve these goals. Goals do not have periods; goals will remain until the goal changed, and it rarely happens.
In this case there is a difference to the formulation of strategy with management control.
Strategy formulation is the process of decision-making of new strategies, whereas the management control is the process of implementation of the strategy.

Control Task
Control task is a process to ensure that specific tasks carried out effectively and efficiently.
The most important differences between the control and management control task is that many tasks control system was scientific, while management control can not be reduced to a science.

Internet Impact on Management Control
  • Access is easy and fast
  • Communication multi-target
  • Low-cost Communication
  • The ability to display a certain image
  • shift power and control of individual heads.

Friday, October 16, 2009


Consumer research (Riset Konsumen) developed as an extension of the marketing research field to enable marketers to predict how consumers will react in the market and understand their reasons for the decision to buy. The results of market research and consumer research used to improve managerial decision making.

The researchers first period consumers little thought to influence mood (mood), emotions, or situations of consumer satisfaction. They believe that marketing is only applied economics, and the consumers are rational decision makers, which objectively assess the goods and services available to them and choose only the benefit (satisfaction) the highest with the lowest price.
In 1939, a psychoanalyst from Vienna named Ernest Ditcher started using the technique to reveal the psychoanalyst Freud the hidden motivations of consumers themselves. In the late 1950s, research methodology called motivation research is essentially qualitative approach, widely used by the consumer research. Consumer researchers currently use two kinds of different research methodologies to study consumer behavior research is a quantitative and qualitative research.

Quantitative research is descriptive and used to understand the influence of various input promotion to consumers, allowing marketers to "predict" consumer behavior. This research approach is known as positivism and researchers known as a positivist. Research method used consisted of an experiment, survey techniques, and observation. The results are descriptive, empirical, and if taken at random (by using a probability sample) can be generalized to the larger population.

Qualitative research
Qualitative research methods consisted of in-depth interviews, focus groups, analysis of metaphor, research collage, and projection techniques. This technique is done through analysis of a highly trained interviewers, and tend to be subjective. The results can not be generalized to the broader population because the number of sample slightly. This technique is usually used to obtain new ideas for promotional campaigns.

COMBINING RESULTS qualitative and quantitative research
Some marketers use a combination of quantitative and qualitative research to help assist strategic marketing decisions because of the limited results of qualitative research. Qualitative research is used to find new ideas and to develop a campaign strategy, while the quantitative research results are used to predict consumer reactions to various campaign inputs.
The idea comes from qualitative studies are sometimes tested empirically and the basis for the design of quantitative studies. Result of a merger enables marketers to design marketing strategies more meaningful and more efficient that aims to make a profit or nonprofit. They also provide a stronger basis for public policy decisions.

The main steps in the consumer research process includes:

  1. Determining the research objectives
  2. Collect and evaluate secondary data
  3. Designing a primary research study
  4. Collecting primary data
  5. Analyzing data
  6. Preparing the research report

The first step in the process of consumer research is to determine the precise objectives of the study. It is important for marketing managers and researchers to agree on the initial purpose and objectives of the study to ensure that appropriate research design. Objectives carefully considered to help find the type and quality of information needed.

Secondary data information is any data that was originally produced for specific purposes other than research purposes now. This information includes the results of research based on research conducted outside organizations, the data generated in the previous study, and even customer information collected by the sales or the company's credit.

Approach for each different type of research from the point of data collection methods, sample design, and the kinds of data collection tools used, so that each research approach is discussed separately.

Quantitative research design
The design of quantitative research studies including data collection methods, sample design, and manufacturing data collection tools (eg questionnaires).

  • Data Collection Method

There are three basic ways to collect data:

  1. Observation Research, a consumer research method is important, to gain a deep understanding of the relationship between people and products to their attention during the process of buying and using the product. Observational studies are also widely used to understand the process of purchasing and consumption.
  2. Experimentation, a controlled experiment to ensure that any differences in outcome variables not free (dependent variable) caused by the different treatment of variables under study and not by external factors.
  3. The survey, can be done through several ways including: (a) Survey of individual interviews, (b) the survey by phone, (c) survey in the mail.

  • Data Collection Instrument

Data collection instruments included a questionnaire, a list of questions of personal views, attitudes and scale for qualitative data, guide the discussion. Data collection instruments are usually tested first and the "debugged" to ensure the validity and reliability of research. The study said to have validity if it really appropriate to collect data and required to answer the question or stated goals in the first stage in the research process. The study said if the question has the same reliability, which is expressed to a similar sample, producing the same conclusion.

Qualitative research design
In choosing the appropriate format for research qualitative study, it must consider the purpose of study and type of data required. Research methods used may differ in composition, but all have roots from the psychoanalytic and clinical aspects of psychology, and emphasizes the type of open questions and answers free.

  • Data Collection Method

Choice of data collection techniques for qualitative study included in-depth interviews, focus groups, the projection technique, and metaphor analysis.

  • Determination of Sample

An integrated component in the research design is the determination of the sample plan. The number of samples depends on the size of the budget and desired level of confidence of market participants from research results. The more samples, the more likely the answer will reflect the overall population being studied. If all the research results can be projected to the entire population, then the probability sample should be chosen. However, if it is considered adequate (representative), then the non-probability sample can be selected.

Qualitative studies usually require the social science experts who are trained to collect data. Quantitative studies usually require field staff employed and trained directly by the researchers in conducting interviews in the field. All the questionnaire was completed on a regular basis to review the progress of research studies to ensure that the recorded answers clear, complete, and legible.

In qualitative research, moderators or executing tests typically analyze all the answers received. In quantitative research, the researchers watched the analysis. All the answers to open converted into code and measurable (numeric score), then tabulated and analyzed using a program that connects the data by a variety of selected variables and to group data by selected demographic.

In both qualitative and quantitative research, research report also contains a brief conclusion about the research results. The contents of the report contains a full description of the methodology used, for quantitative research also includes various tables and graphs to support his research results.

In designing a research study, the researchers adjust the research process with the special needs of the research.