Sensation is the immediate response and direct from the sensory organ of simple stimuli (advertising, packaging, brand). Stimulus input is any unit that received by the five senses. Consumer sensitivity refers to the experience of a sensation. Sensitivity to different stimuli according to different sensory quality of individual recipients and the amount or intensity of stimuli was experiencing.
The lowest level where one can experience a sensation called the absolute threshold. Point where one can know the difference between "something" and "no nothing" is a person's absolute threshold of the stimulus. In the field of perception, in particular the adjustment term refers to "become accustomed" to the sensation and level of specific stimulation.
Differential threshold (JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE)
The smallest difference (at least) that can be felt between the two types of stimuli are almost similar called the differential threshold or just noticeable difference (the difference can still be seen) abbreviated jnd Ernest Weber was a 19th century German scientist found that the jnd between two stimuli is not an absolute amount but the amount relative to the first stimulus intensity. Weber's Law states that the greater the first stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed so that the second stimulus can be perceived difference.
For example, a $ 100 increase in the price of a car may not be noticed, but the $ 1 increase in the premium price (of gasoline) will soon become the attention of the consumer, because a significant percentage of gasoline prices before the price increase.
J.n.d Applications to Marketing
The producers and marketers are trying to set jnd that are relevant to their products because of two very different reasons, namely:
- So many negative changes (eg, reduction in size or quality of the product, or increase the price of the product) can not be easily seen by the public (still under jnd),
- So that product improvements (such as the updated packaging, the size of an enlarged, or lower prices) is very clear to the consumer without the useless waste (in the level or slightly above the jnd).
Majority of stimuli perceived by the consumers on the level of their consciousness, but the stimuli that weakness can be felt below the level of consciousness, which can sense stimuli without consciously doing so. Stimuli are too weak to be seen or heard may be conscious enough to be recognized by one or more recipient cells, this process is called subliminal perception. Perception of stimuli that is above the level of consciousness is technically called supraliminal perception though usually simpler to so-called perception.
About Subliminal Perception Research
Research deny the notion that subliminal stimuli influence consumer buying decisions. A series of laboratory experiments are very imaginative and was held following the public hearings supported the notion that individuals can feel something beneath their level of consciousness, but did not find evidence that they can be persuaded to act in response to subliminal stimulation.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Subliminal Persuasion
A review of research literature states that subliminal perception is based on two theoretical approaches, namely:
- Repetitions extremely weak stimuli constantly have the additional effect that allows it to build power stimulus response to the presentation.
- Subliminal sexual stimuli lead to sexual motivation is not recognized
However, there are no studies showing that one theoretical approach has been used effectively by advertisers to increase sales. In summary, although there is evidence that subliminal stimuli can influence affective reactions, but there is no evidence that subliminal stimulation can influence consumption motives or actions.
DYNAMICS OF PERCEPTION
Individuals are very selective about the stimuli which they "admitted" unconsciously organize the stimuli they actually admit according to the psychological principles that are widely held and interpret these stimuli subjectively according to the needs, expectations, and experiences. Three aspects of perception is the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli.
SELECTION BASED ON PERCEPTION
The consumers are not aware of many use the power to choose aspects of the environment where (stimuli which) that they feel. Selected stimuli which depends on two main factors besides the nature of the stimulus itself, namely:
- Experience of previous customers, because it affects their expectations (what they are prepared or "set" to be seen),
- Their motives at that time (needs, desires, interests, and so on).
Each of these factors can help to increase or reduce the likelihood that a stimulus will be felt.
Important Concepts Regarding Various Selective Perception
The selection of stimuli from the environment consumers based on the interaction of expectations and their motives with the stimulus itself. The principle of selective perception include the following concepts are: the opening of self-selective, selective attention, defense against the perception, and perception barriers.
Consumers organize all of their perceptions into a whole. Specific principles that underlie the perception of grouping is often called Gestalt psychology. Three of the most basic principle is the basic figure and, groupings, and settlement.
INTERPRETATION Interpretation PERCEPTION
Interpretation of stimuli is very subjective and based on what consumers expect to be seen from previous experience, the number of plausible explanations that can be imagined, motives and interests at the time of emergence of perception, and clarity of the stimulus itself. Influences that tend to distort the interpretation of objective include:
- physical appearance,
- Various clues (cues) that are not relevant,
- The first impression, and
- The tendency to take decisions too quickly.
VARIOUS CONSUMER CITRA
As the individual feel self-image, they also feel the image of the product and brand image. Products and brands have symbolic value for the individual, who judged on the basis of consistency (compatibility) with a personal picture of themselves.
SETTINGS AND POSITION PRODUCT REVIEW ARRANGEMENTS
The image that belongs to certain products in consumers' minds that position settings, which may be more important for the successful end than the actual product characteristics. Products and services that are deemed exciting opportunity has far better to buy than the products and services that have an image unpleasant or neutral. Regardless of how well a particular product positioning, marketers may be forced to reset the product's position in response to market events (such as competitors reduce market share brand), or meet the changing consumer favorite excess, and so forth.
POSITION SETTINGS SERVICE
Compared with manufacturing companies, service marketers face some unique problems in regulating and promoting the supply position. Because services can not be seen, the image becomes a key factor in distinguishing factor services from its competitors. Thus, the marketing goal is to enable consumers to connect a specific image with a special brand.
ALTERED PERCEPTION OF PRICE
How consumers view a particular price (high, low, naturally) has a strong influence on purchase intention and purchase satisfaction. Consumers rely on the price of internal and external reference when assessing the price reasonableness. Reference price is used each consumer prices as a basis for comparison in assessing other prices. Internal reference price is the price (price range) which is found by consumers from memory.
perceived quality perception
Consumers often judge the quality of a product or service based on a variety of information cues, some of which are intrinsic to the product (eg, color, size, taste, smell), while others are extrinsic (eg, price, store image, brand image, service environment ). In the absence of direct experience or other information, parakonsumen often rely on price as an indicator of quality.
SERVQUAL Scale, designed to measure the price gap between customer expectations of service and customer perceptions of service provided, which is based on the following five dimensions:
- Real, physical facility appearance, equipment, personnel, and communications equipment.
- Reliability, ability to hold the promised service, a reliable and accurate.
- guarantee, willingness to help customers and provide fast service.
- Jaminan, pengetahuan dan sopan santun karyawan dan kemampuan mereka untuk menimbulkan kepercayaan dan keyakinan.
- Empathy, caring and individual attention given to the customer company.
CITRA RETAIL STORES
Retail stores (retail stores) have the image of the store itself, which helped influence the perceived product quality, and consumer decisions about where to shop. A study on retail store image based on comparative pricing strategies found that consumers tend to think of stores that offer a small discount on some goods as a whole store that offers prices lower than competitors' shops that give discounts greater in less product
The image extends beyond the consumer price and the perceived image of the store to the manufacturers themselves. Manufacturers who enjoys a good image is usually felt that many of their new products more easily accepted than the product manufacturer has a poor image or a neutral image.
Consumers often feel the risks in doing product selection because of uncertainty about the consequences of their product decisions. The main risk types most often experienced consumers when making decisions about the products include:
- Functional Risk is the risk that the product does not perform as expected.
- Physical risk is the risk to themselves and others who may generated products.
- Financial risk is the risk that the product will not be worth the price.
- Social risk is the risk that a bad product choices can cause embarrassment in social environments.
- Psychological risk is the risk that a bad choice of products can harm consumers ego.
- Risk Time is the risk that the time used to find the product will be wasted if the product does not work as expected.
Consumers develop their own strategies to reduce the expected risk include:
- Consumers looking for information,
- Consumers loyal to brands,
- Consumers choose based on brand image,
- Consumers rely on the image of the store (retail merchant who has a good name),
- Consumers buy the most expensive models,
- Consumer guaranteed.